Home Automation Project Using Embedded System, PIC Microcontroller - Part 1

Project by
Mepits

Electricity has consistently stuck around as a springtime necessity of life as it is impractical to portrait our life left out electricity. But the only dilemma, as far as electricity is bothered, is the expenditure at which it is created that is intersection all deadline by day by day, and thus establishing too much burden on the end user in the form of greater electricity bills.

Low power utilization is a favorable advantage in this energy starved world. This Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller is delineated and constructed to rescue the consumption of electrical power and to avoid dissipation is experimented here. This home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller takes hold of, over the duty of managing the light, fan, TV etc  like all the electrical devices on the room, when a person infiltrates the room. When a human being enters the place or room, the fan, lights and the other electrical devices in the room are perceptive or active automatically although it is switched off or terminate as the last individual leaves. A Passive Infrared sensor (PIR Sensor) is allocated near the entrance of the door and used to recognize the existence of human beings. The PIR sensor output is transmitted to the Micro controller PIC 16F883, which suddenly controls the devices in the room by virtue of a relay. The eventual goal of this project is to save the energy or power also to construct a Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller when no one is there in the room or house.  

Block Diagram of Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller:

                     Home automation Block Diagram using PIC microcontroller

 

PIR Sensor used in Home Automation Project Using Embedded System, PIC Microcontroller:

A Passive Infrared Sensor which is also known as PIR Sensor is an electronics based sensor, which is used to evaluate the Infra-Red light (IR Light) emitting from any objects or body in its area of view.

Operating principles of PIR Sensor:

Naturally all objects or body with temperature higher than absolute zero always emits heat energy and this heat energy will be in the form of radiations (at infrared wave lengths), also this energy will be invisible to human eyes. The PIR Sensor used in the Home Automation Project will detects these Infra-Red Radiations and thus understands the presence of any object or human body.  Actually the PIR Sensor doesn’t radiate any types of energy or ray for detecting these IR rays that emitted or radiated from any object. The main objective of PIR Sensor is to detect the motion of any object or body in front of its visibility area. The working voltage for PIR sensor is 5V to 12V DC and it can produce outputs in digital formats. Up to a 6 meter motions can be detected by this PIR Sensor module. Also 10 to 60 seconds of time is required as settling time for starting object detection.

Specifications of PIR Sensor:

  • Working Voltage/ Operating Voltage: 5V -12 V
  • Settling Time: 10-60 Seconds
  • Range: Up to 6 Meters
  • Output: Single Bit (Digital)
  • Small in size and easy to use.
  • Sensitivity can be Pre settable.
  • Available Sizes: 32mm Length, 24mm Width and 26mm Thickness.

In the Home Automation Project Using Embedded System, PIC Microcontroller, the Digital Output from the PIR Sensor is given to the respective pins of the PIC Microcontroller as shown in the circuit diagram.

PIC Microcontroller – PIC 16F883:

The PIC Microcontroller – PIC 16F883 is one of the popular IC from Microchip. The PIC Microcontroller – PIC 16F883 provides all the features of today’s modern Microcontrollers. PIC 16F883 Microcontrollers provides an ideal solutions for applications like - the controlling of several processes in machine control devices, industry, measurement of different values, home automation etc. Some of the major specifications and features of PIC Microcontroller – PIC 16F883 are listed below.

Specifications of PIC Microcontroller – PIC 16F883:

  • PIC 16F883/882/886 ICs are available in 28- Pin SOIC, PDIP, QFN and SSOP packages.
  • PIC Microcontroller – PIC 16F883, provides 256 bytes of EEPROM data memory.
  • Self-Programming features.
  • 2 Comparators and an ICD Features.
  • Analog-to-Digital converter (11 channels of 10-bit A/D converter).
  • 1 Enhanced capture/compare/PWM functions.
  • 1 capture/compare/PWM functions.
  • A synchronous serial port.
  • Enhanced Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (EUSART).

The Output from the PIC Microcontroller is given to the Fan and Light Controlling Relays. According to the Microcontroller output, the corresponding actions will be carried out.

Power Supply:

A regulator IC 7805 is used for supplying power to the entire circuit. 7805 regulator IC is a voltage regulator integrated IC in 78xx series. The 78xx series ICs belonging to fixed linear voltage regulator category. There may have lots of fluctuations in the main supply voltage. So for Home Automation Project Using Embedded System, PIC Microcontroller, these voltage fluctuations will damage the entire circuit. The Voltage Regulator IC 7805 used here, protects the entire circuit from these voltage fluctuations by filtering the voltage variations and providing a constant output voltage to the entire circuit of Home Automation Project Using Embedded System, PIC Microcontroller. The 7805 Regulator IC provides a +5 Voltage of regulated power supply. Filtering capacitors are used along with the IC’s respective pins with respect to the voltage levels.

Fan and Light Controlling Relays:

The relay used in this Home Automation Project Using Embedded System, PIC Microcontroller is Relay (5v SPDT >1A). This relay module is suitable for office machine, domestic appliance, automobile, audio etc. These relays act as a Circuit Switch according to certain switching condition. Also the relay offers a high protection to the electrical appliances. According to the output from the Microcontroller, the relay controls the fan and the lights.

Flow Chart of Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller:

                                                   Home automation flow chart

Circuit Diagram of Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller-Part1:

                              Circuit Diagram of Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller

PCB and Component Layout Of Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller-Part1:

Home automation Component layout   Home automation PCB  layout

Electronic Components Required:

Applications and Advantages of Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller:

1. In many mechanical, chemical and electrical companies, it is very important to check out some parameters like temperature and light intensity levels continually and control devices according to these parameters. This project may be very helpful for such companies.

2. This Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller can be implemented in our homes, schools and conference room for saving electricity.

3. It is very helpful pic microcontroller projects for rooms like store rooms and godowns, because when a person enters the room the light will automatically turned ON and will be OFF when that person leaves the room.

4. May be used in green houses for controlling the light and temperature for the proper growth of plants.

5. This Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller will be helpful in places like cinema halls, malls and multiplex etc.              

Note: Home automation project using embedded system, pic microcontroller - Part 2 will provide you more advanced and interesting features for your home automation project. Just go through it……

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