The energy that is produced from sun is known as solar energy. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun, where hydrogen nucleus fuses into helium nucleus. When such a reaction takes place then tremendous amount of energy is produced this is escaped into the space. Sun is the primary source of Energy. The earth receives 16 x 1018 units of energy from the sun annually, which is 20,000 times the requirement of mankind on the Earth. Some of the Solar Energy causes evaporation of water, leading to rains and creation of rivers etc. Some of it is utilized in photosynthesis which is essential for sustenance of life on earth. Man has tried from time immemorial to harness this infinite source of energy. But has been able to tap only a negligibly fraction of this energy till today. The broad categories of possible large scale applications of solar power are the heating and cooling of residential and commercial buildings.
- The chemical and Biological conversion of organic material to liquid solid and gaseous fuels.
- Conversion of solar energy to Electricity.
In this project we use the solar energy for the generation of electrical energy, by using solar cells. The solar cell receives the solar energy. The solar cells operate on the principle of photovoltaic effect, by using solar cells. Basically the cells are placed in an open and fixed manner.
Design and Fabrication
The design and fabrication of a typical solar powered fan can be explained with the help of a block diagram. The block diagram describes a simple solar powered fan with a manual. Let us study the block diagram in detail by classifying it into three sections.
The input section includes photovoltaic arrays consisting of solar cells. The solar cells are connected in parallel to get the maximum current.
The characteristics of the solar cell array are as below:
- Type of semi-conductor used for cell: silicon
- Number of arrays: 2
- Power: 36 watt x 2 = 72 watt
- Open circuit voltage: 21v
- Short circuit current: 3.6 ampere
The storage section includes a battery. The characteristics of the battery are as below:
- Type: Lead acid tubular battery
- Ampere hour efficiency: 90 to 95%
- Watt hour efficiency: 70 to 80%
- Capacity: 40 AH, 12V.
The characteristics of controller are as below:
- Low voltage cut off
- Over charge disconnect
- Operating current: 10 ampere
Output system includes various devices and equipment’s used for the distribution of the power.
- Type: 2 core with sleeve
- Quantity: 10 meters
- High copper rich 10amp wire for minimum power loss.
Inverters play an important undertaking in any solar 1 energy system and are often thought out as to be the brains of a part out, whether it’s a 2-kw of private houses system or a 5-mw use power plant. An inverters Basic purpose, use is to put in opposite order the straight to current (DC) output into alternating current (Ac). Ac is the quality example used by all business, trading instruments, which is why many view inverters as the way in between the photovoltaic (PV) system and the energy off-taker.
Inverter technologies have increased importantly, such that in addition to making one of religion DC to Ac, they give a number of other powers and services to make certain that the inverter can-do medical operation at a best selection operation level, such as facts looking at, increased of value controls, applications and system design engineering. Inverter manufacturers also make ready post-installation services that are integral to supporting energy producing and a high level of doing a play for the part out, including suggestion-to-stop support, O&M services and a quick middle, half way between time to put right (MTTR).
Components and their functions
The various components of a typical photovoltaic power generation system are
- Solar photovoltaic array
- Battery Bank
- Charge Controller
Solar Photovoltaic Array
The solar photovoltaic array consists of an appropriate number of solar cells connected in series and or parallel to provide the required current and voltage. The array is so oriented as to collect the maximum solar radiation throughout the year.
There may be tracking arrays or modules or fixed arrays. A tracking array is defined as one which is always kept mechanically perpendicular to the sun array line so that all times it intercepts the maximum isolation. Such arrays must be physically movable by a suitable prime mover and are generally considerably more complex than fixed arrays. A fixed array is usually oriented east west and tilted up at an angle approximately equal to the latitude of the site. Thus the array design falls into two broad classes:
The arrays are placed by using by suitable adhesive
This technology springs from the space associated photovoltaic technology and many such arrays have been built in different power sizes.
Where in suitable optics, e.g. Fresnel lenses, parabolic mirrors are combined with photovoltaic cells in an array fashion. This technology is relatively new to photovoltaic in terms of hardware development and comparatively fewer such arrays have actually been built.
In most alone PV power systems, storage batteries with charge regulators have to be incorporated to provide a back-up power source during periods of low solar irradiance and night. Several types of accumulator are available in the market for use in PV power systems. The main requirements to be met by an accumulator for solar power system are,
- Ability to withstand several charge/discharge cycle.
- A low self-discharge rate
- Little or no need for support
The amount of room of an apparatus for producing electric current is the Total amount of electrics that can be outlined from a fully requested apparatus for producing electric current at a fixed send out rate and electrolyte temperature until the electric force falls to a detailed least possible or recorded. It is expressed in unit of measure of electric current hour. The amount of room of the apparatus for producing electric current also depends upon the temperature and existence-stage of apparatus for producing electric current.
The electric units in most PV systems are of lead acid letters used for printing made up of one or more 2v small rooms. Each small room has a positive plate of lead peroxide and a not plate of sponge lead. The electrolyte is dilute sulphuric acid. During firing, letting off when current is outlined from it, the material of both plates changes to lead sulphate and water What is in the electrolyte increases thereby making feeble, poor its special weight.
When the apparatus for producing electric current is requested by going past, through electric current through it in the opposite direction, the opposite chemical reaction takes place. The small room measured in volts are representatively 2.4v and 1.9v for fully requested and deeply sent out apparatus for producing electric current separately. Lead acid electric units self-discharge slowly when not in use.
3.3 Charge Controller
Overcharging of some electric units results in loss of electrolytic, slow destruction (by acid), plate growth and loss of action-bound material from the plates, causing copies of smaller size in apparatus for producing electric current existence. In addition, the redone unsuccessful person to get stretched full go forward also leads to stratification of electrolyte. In this way, there is a need of go forward controllers to optimize the apparatus for producing electric current existence.
Most go forward controllers start the charging process with a high current and get changed to other form it to a very low level when a certain apparatus for producing electric current electric force is got to. A by numbers, electronic based go forward regulator computer looking-glass the apparatus for producing electric current, and electric force works out the level of go forward and keeps control the input and output currents so in connection with keep from both overcharging and more than enough substance let go.
For continuous operation, we use solar cells for charging DC LAMP.
- Connect the inverter to the battery with the wires.
- Connect the negative wire to the negative pole of the battery first, then positive
- Connect the charge controller to the battery and the solar panel.
- Make sure you connect the wire to the negative pole of the battery first, then the positive.
- Fix the panel outside to charge in the sunlight.
- Position it so it will be exposed to the maximum amount of sunlight.
- When charged above 50% capacity, connect your appliances to the inverter.
- Direct room temperature conversion of light to electricity through a simple solid state device.
- Due to the absence of moving parts noiseless operation of power generation.
- Pollution free atmospheric condition due to the absence of smokes and fumes.
- They have a long effective life.
- They are highly reliable
- They are working with freely available solar energy, hence fuel cost is zero.
- Operating cost, maintenance costs are minimum as compared to the other type of power generation systems.
- They have wide power handling capability from Microwatts to Kilowatts or even Megawatts. When modules are combined into large arrays. Solar cells can be used in combination with power handling circuitry to feed power into utility grid.
- Solar energy can only be harnessed when it is daytime and sunny.
- Solar collectors, panels and cells are relatively expensive to manufacture although prices are falling rapidly.
- Large areas of land are required to capture the suns energy. Collectors are usually arranged together especially when electricity is to be produced and used in the same location.