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For any operations the patient being in an anesthetic condition is a must. Anesthesia a practice in medicine to induce temporary state were the patient won’t feel any pain during the medical procedure using anesthetics. The impact of the anesthesia should be there how long the operation goes and for that at specified time intervals they are administered. It should not be given at a single stretch as may result in serious implications.   

What happens if it is not administered at that particular time interval? It will be creating serious health problems and to overcome such unfavorable situations a project has been designed to develop an automatic anesthesia controller.

The automatic anesthesia controller system is developed using an Arduino Uno. This system has a switch panel to control the syringe infusion system and the whole set up. The anesthetist can set the amount to be given to the patient. Using the switch panel, the anesthetist can start the process and once the start signal is received by the Arduino Uno it controls all the system, sends a signal to the motor driver to switch on the motors and start infusing the medicine. The switch panel has switches for start, stop, forward and backward action buttons. The motor driver is capable of performing bidirectional rotation i.e. injecting and releasing action of the syringe. A minimum amount of anesthesia will be injected to the patient body, while doing this the heartbeat will be monitored. After administration it will check whether the heartbeat count is normal or not. If normal, then the second dose of the medicine will be injected. If the heartbeat shows any abnormality then the administration will be stopped and will notify the doctor and continue only after everything becomes normal.

Block Diagram

Block Diagram

Components Required

  1. Arduino Uno
  2. LCD
  3. L293D
  4. DC Motor
  5. Heartbeat sensor
  6. Syringe Infusion pump
  7. Button switches


Arduino Uno board is the main controller of this project.ATmega328P based microcontroller has 14 digital I/O pins, 6 analog inputs etc. everything required to support it. To the analog input a heartbeat sensor is connected. Heartbeat sensor will give the heartbeat per minute of the patient. The patient will wear the Heartbeat sensor on his finger. It consists of a light detector and an LED. The light intensity variation arises whenever heart pumps the blood. This variation is converted to an electric pulse. The number of pulses generated per minute will give the heartbeat per minute. This value is given as input to the Arduino board.

A minimum value for the anesthetic dosage has been set which can be altered using the increment and decrement buttons provided in the board. The values of the heartbeat count and the dosage cycle remaining will be displayed in the LCD. Whenever the situation arises, administer anesthesia by pressing the start button,  the DC motor turn on which in turn is connected to a syringe infusion pump will start injecting the anesthetics. The DC motor is driven by a motor driver IC, L293D.  The motor can be driven in bi-directional i.e. forward and backward directions.  If the heartbeat count reduces to a certain value the anesthesia administration gets hindered until it reaches the normal value.


Arduino based anesthesia controller has been developed using heartbeat sensor.