Types of battery chargers and their working

One of the great inventions of the science is electricity that allows us to do much of our work. But with the passage of time, a human felt the need to store that energy so that it may be used in future time and for this purpose, they invented the battery. But after the invention of battery, it was very necessary to make the charger of the battery as it was necessary to charge the battery and different periodic movement to keep the supply of electricity/current going.

What is battery charger?

Battery charger can be defined as the electronic device that is used to recharge the battery by forcing passage of electrical current into the battery. The charging of the battery depends upon basically two things. 

Battery Charger

One is the size and the other is the type of the battery. Some type of batteries have very high tolerance for the process of overcharging so they can only be recharged when they are exposed to a constant voltage source and when they are given a constant current source. The charger of this type requires them to manually disconnect at the end of the charging cycle. On the other hand, some types of batteries could not withstand this high rate of overcharging and in this time of charge, the charger cuts off the supply automatically when the battery is charged.

The slow battery charger takes much time to recharge the battery and the time mean increased to several hours but on the other hand, high rate charges are able to restore the current back into the battery within minutes but at the same time these high rate charges require a continuous monitoring because they may harm the battery from the process of overcharging. Usually, the electric vehicles need these types of high charges so that they can be charged in a less amount of time.

Types of Battery Chargers

The battery chargers can be divided into many types. These types can be categorized as follows:

Simple charger

This type of charger works by supplying a constant direct current to the battery that is being charged. This charger does not have the ability to cut out the supply when the charging is complete. The simple charger is very inexpensive and it really takes a longer time to charge the battery but this delay in time prevents a battery from overcharging. There is also one disadvantage of charging the battery with a simple charger for too long will weaken the battery. The simple AC powered battery chargers are said to have high ripple voltage and current. Life of a AC simple charger is within 3% of the life of a constant DC battery charger.

                       Simple Charger  Fast Charger

Fast charger

As the name suggests these charges charge the battery at a faster rate as compared to the simple charger. Most of these chargers have a cooling fan installed on them so that it keeps the temperature of the cell under control. Many of the fast chargers have the ability to act as standard overnight charges when they are used with the standard NiMH cells.

Inductive charger

This type of charger uses the electromagnetic induction to do the process of charging. In these charges, there is a charging station that sends the electromagnetic energy with the help of an inductive coupling to the device which in turn stores the energy in the battery. This whole process is achieved without the testing of metal between the battery and the charger. This charger is commonly used to charge electric toothbrushes.

       Motion Powered Charger   Inductive Charger

Motion powered charger

This type of charger charges the battery by using the human motion. Tremont electric is the company that has made a charger which consist of magnet held between two elastic springs and the charging done at the device is moved up and down like during the process of walk.

Solar chargers

Solar Charger

These are just having the ability to convert the light energy into direct current. The main advantage of this charger is that they are portable but that can also be fixed. These fixed chargers are known as solar panels.


A battery charger has a number of applications in our surrounding. The most common applications can be categorized as under: A battery charger is used in the vehicles to charge the battery. When we talk about the vehicles battery charger basically there are two types of charger for the vehicles. One of the chargers is used to recharge a fuel vehicle starter battery and the other charger is used to recharge an electric vehicle. These two charges of great importance as vehicles are done important part of our society and we need to constantly charge batteries in order to keep them moving. Another important type of charger that is being used in a daily life is the mobile phone charger. In today's developed world, most of the chargers that are used for charging the mobile phones are basically not the chargers in fact there are only the power of doctors that are used to provide a power source for charging circuit that is present into the mobile phone. The mobile phone charger can basically a separately to believe wider range of voltage fluctuation as long as it remains within the specified limit. And if we talk about a mobile phone charger then in their charge of the world in almost 5 V but it can be up to 12 V.

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