Latest, Emerging Wireless Technologies
Today, wired connections are slowly being replaced by different latest, emerging wireless technologies. Emergence of new wireless technologies has helped to bring out many new ideas and applications to the society. In this era, we all are expecting different solutions in the wireless field which helps to explode out many new types of wireless technology. Wireless technology is just a latest technical term given to describe telecommunication where the EM (electromagnetic) waves carry signal over communication path. Now let’s look on to the latest, emerging wireless technologies.
Latest, Emerging Wireless Technologies
Here we will be discussing the latest, emerging wireless technologies used commonly for different applications. They are:
Wireless Fidelity (WiFi)
Wireless Fidelity also known popularly by the names Wi-Fi or Wifi is a local area wireless technology which helps an electronic device to transfer data and connect internet using the radio waves. Many electronic devices use WiFi like PCs, video-games, cameras, and digital audio players. Wireless Router and Wireless Adapter help in the WiFi operation. Their functions are:
- Wireless adapter of a PC translates data to radio signal and transmits it using antenna.
- Wireless router receives and decodes the signal. Also, it helps to send the information to Internet using physical and Ethernet connection.
Data security risks, limited range and interference are some factors that strongly affect the performance of the WiFi. By following some of the tricks listed below, we can increase the performance of our WiFi at home:
- Use only one wireless standard.
- Use WPA2 security.
- Reposition your router
- Change wireless channel.
- Upgrade wireless adapters.
- Upgrade router.
Wi-Fi is described as any wireless local area network (WLAN) products supported by the 802.11 standards of IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). Wi-Fi technology uses wireless adapter that translates data into a radio signal and transmits them in to air. Router receives transmitted radio signal, decodes and transmits the data to internet. When data from internet is required the entire process is reversed.
Wi-Fi uses very high frequency when compared to other wireless communication methods, lies in the range of 2.4 GHz or even higher frequency, such as, 5 GHz and therefore the signal can carry more data. The 802.11 standard in which Wi-Fi is defined, has a few sub versions.
Transmission frequency in 802.11a standard is 5 GHz. It improves the data speed up to 54 megabits per second. 802.11a standard uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). In this technology, radio signal is divided into several sub-signals before they reach a receiver.
This is the slowest and least expensive method. In 802.11b, the standard transmission frequency is 2.4 GHz and has a data rate of 11 megabits per second.
802.11g uses same transmission frequency as that of 802.11b, that is, 2.4 GHz. But its data rate is very high since, it uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), that is, 54 megabits of data per second.
802.11n is the most widely used standard. It supports a data rate of 140 megabits per second. The technology is backward compatible with all the standards mentioned above.
LiFi (Light Fidelity)
LiFi (Light Fidelity) an extension to Visible Light Communication is an emerging paradigm in the list of latest, emerging wireless technologies. Their speed, usability, flexibility and other advantages make them an excellent one. LiFi, Light Fidelity offers wireless communication using the visible light. It includes range of frequencies and wavelengths starting from the infrared to the ultraviolet. Just by using the light from the LED, LiFi as a wireless technology helps to transmit the data efficiently and securely. This wireless technology in its way is surely said to replace the WiFi routers thereby becoming the internet at the speed of light. It can use speeds upto 3.5Gbit/s per color.
Gigabit Wireless (GiFi)
Gigabit Wireless also known popularly by the names GiFi or Gi-Fi is a wireless communication providing a data rate of gigabits per second.
Some features of GiFi – the latest, emerging wireless technologies are :
- Low power consumption.
- Better transfer rates.
- Cost efficient.
ZigBee works in 2.4 GHz frequency. Basically it uses mesh, star and cluster topologies. They are inexpensive, general purpose, self-organizing and a robust wireless technology. Usually, ZigBee networks need a host and a coordinator for its operation. ZigBee is based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard. To achieve low power consumption, transmission distance is limited to 10-100m distance. Also to transmit the data over long distances, we normally pass the data through mesh network of intermediate devices. Commonly ZigBee is used in applications that have long battery life and network security.
Some of the characteristics of ZigBee include:
- Various transmission options.
- Security mechanism.
- Operation in 2.4GHz frequency.
- Operates in the 915 MHz (Americas) and 868 MHz (Europe).
- Power saving mechanisms.
- Pairing mechanism with full application confirmation.
- Multiple star topology and personal area network (PAN).
- Operating over 16 channels.
This is one of the best tools for personal networks, and is applied using the renowned “Mesh Networks”. A mesh network or technology is a term that is used to define a set of technological architectures that are designed for both wired and wireless systems. The concept of this system is best derived from the internet and public switched telephone network. The idea here is to provide a communication medium for the two ends of devices, so that they can be interconnected with each other. The path that is set by the mesh network never remains constant, rather the devices that are connected through this network provide a wide range of paths for the different types of devices so that they can be interconnected with it. The same is seen in this wireless technology which is an open standard that was created in accordance to the budding trends of the market. Unlike the complex mesh network applications ZigBee has more sort of a straightforward machine to machine framework which is robust and easy to use too.
Working of ZigBee
The physical layer of ZigBee is supported by the 802.15.4 specification. The particular is a bundle based radio convention planned for ease, battery-worked gadgets. The convention permits gadgets to impart in a mixture of system topologies and can have battery life enduring a few years. The Zigbee convention has been made and endorsed by part organizations of the Zigbee Alliance. In excess of 300 heading semiconductor producers, engineering firms, OEMS and administration organizations contain the Zigbee Alliance enrollment. The Zigbee convention was intended to give a simple to-utilize remote information result portrayed by secure, solid remote system architectures. The Zigbee convention is intended to impart information through unfriendly RF situations that are normal in business and modern applications.
Advantages of ZigBee
- Help for numerous system topologies, for example, point-to-point, mesh networks and point to multi-point.
- Low dormancy
- Up to 65,000 hubs for every system
- Crash evasion, retries and acknowledgements
- Cross section Networks
A key part of the Zigbee convention is the capacity to help cross section organizing. In a lattice system, hubs are interconnected with different hubs so that various pathways interface every hub. Associations between hubs are powerfully upgraded and improved through complex, implicit lattice directing table. Cross section systems are decentralized in nature; every hub is fit for divulgence toward oneself on the system. Likewise, as hubs leave the system, the cross section topology permits the hubs to reconfigure steering ways focused around the new system structure. The qualities of lattice topology and impromptu steering give more noteworthy strength in changing conditions or disappointment at single hubs. Zigbee empowers wide based organization of remote systems with ease, low-control results. It gives the capacity to run for almost years on modest batteries for an assemblage of observing and control applications. Keen vitality/shrewd network, AMR (Automatic Meter Reading), lighting controls, building mechanization frameworks, tank observing, HVAC control, therapeutic gadgets and armada applications are only a portion of the numerous spaces where Zigbee engineering is making noteworthy progressions.
ZigBee and its Operating Modes
Today, one can find three modes for operating Zigbee and these modes are:
- Zigbee Router: This is an intermediate format of application that acts like a data router, where the data can be transferred from one device to another using the wireless networks.
- Zigbee Coordinator (ZC): The ZC is recognized to the root of this network tree because it acts just like a bridge for this suite with the other networks. Using ZC one can explore a plethora of information about network, which makes it the ultimate Trust Centre where users can get answers about their queries that are related to Zigbee.
- Zigbee End Device (ZED): This is entitled with a set of characters that helps the user to connect to the parent node of the system (the parent node can be either the router or the coordinator). Only thing about ZED is that it does not have any functions for relying the data from other devices, but the inter-relationship of nodes allows you to obtain asleep mode where one can significantly increase the battery life of the device.
Future Developments of Zigbee –Wireless Technology
The current Zigbee conventions help signal and non-reference point empowered systems. In this sort of system, Zigbee Routers regularly have their recipients persistently dynamic, obliging a more vigorous power supply. Then again, this considers heterogeneous systems in which a few gadgets get persistently, while others just transmit when an outside jolt is located. The normal case of a heterogeneous system is a remote light switch: The Zigbee hub at the light may get always, since it is associated with the mains supply, while a battery-fueled light switch would stay slumbering until the switch is tossed. The switch then awakens a charge to the light, gets an affirmation, and comes back to rest. In guide empowered systems, the unique system hubs called Zigbee Routers transmit intermittent signals to affirm their vicinity to other system hubs. Hubs may rest between signals, therefore bringing down their obligation cycle and expanding their battery life. On the other hand, low obligation cycle operation with long signal interims obliges exact timing, which can clash with the requirement for low item cost.
Bluetooth is a short range data communication platform. This helps in the connection of devices for different applications. It is not an ideal form among latest, emerging wireless technologies while there is a need to transfer large amounts of data. They usually carry the data at speeds of upto 721 Kbps. One of the major aim of Bluetooth as a wireless technology was to enable the users to replace cables between devices. Bluetooth uses frequency hopping techniques with the carrier modulation using Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK).
Some uses of Bluetooth are:
- Multi-use telephone.
- File Transfer,
Up to 8 devices can be connected together using this technology. In this system one will act as a master and 7 others as slaves. A network of devices connected together is called Piconet or PAN (Personal Area Network). Bluetooth uses unlicensed ISM band frequency of 2.45 gigahertz (GHz). Devices in Piconet are synchronized to a common clock and frequency-hopping pattern, with the master device. Frequency hopping technique can be used to avoid interference of a connected pair with a neighboring Bluetooth device. In frequency hopping technique, the transmission frequencies are adjusted automatically by the paired device.
Spread spectrum frequency hopping uses frequency in the range of 2.4 to 2.485 GHz. Signal is transmitted in 79 individual frequencies in the given range with a gap of 1MHz. Frequencies are randomly chosen and Bluetooth transmitters change frequencies 1600 times every second, such that, chances of two neighboring signals transmitting at same frequency is very less.
Bluetooth 2.0 can manage a speed up to 3Mbps and is backward compatible with Bluetooth 1.0 devices, which has a transfer speed of 1 megabit per second (Mbps). Bluetooth connectivity is intended for devices in the range of about 10m radius. Bluetooth technology is used in devices such as headphones, speakers, wireless mouse, data exchange between mobile phones etc.
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
A latest innovation in the latest, emerging wireless technologies is WiMAX. This type of wireless technology is gaining more popularity because it is faster and does not require any sort of wired connections. This wireless technology provides 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates. It uses the OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technology for its function.
Uses of WiMAX
- Provides mobile broadband connectivity.
- Telecommunications, Data, and ITPV services.
- Used as a source of Internet connectivity.
- Better for Metering and Smart grids.
RFID is a Radio Frequency Identification technology which uses the electromagnetic fields to transfer the data. It helps to identify and track tags attached to the objects. It is a method for Automatic Identification and Data Capture.
In the recent times, the technology has changed drastically from wired connections to wireless connections. Irrespective of the type of connection, the demand for better bandwidth and data rates never comes to an end. Wi-Fi is used to get better connectivity and data exchange rates, however, we always look up for better alternatives. This need leads us to an updated wireless technology that has standard data exchange rates, which we refer to as GiFi.
What is GiFi ?
The full form of GiFi is Gigabit wireless; it is basically a wireless communication at data rate of about one million bits (gigabits) per second. As a wireless technology, GiFi is the first integrated transceiver integrated on one chip that allows transfer of videos and audios at a speed of 5 GB per second. GiFi is known to have ten times the current maximum wireless transfer rate in a range of ten meters. GiFi as a wireless technology has a number of applications can be used in different places and devices that include wireless networks, smartphones, mm-waves and media access control.
Why use GiFi ?
The main reasons for making use of GiFi Wireless technology is due to the high power consumption, low range of frequency operation and slow rates of former technologies that include Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. GiFi as a wireless technology makes use of a very tiny antenna that can be used by mobile devices and it is a great tool for wireless home equipment. GiFi aims at solving the low data rate problems as it has an integrated receiver and transmitter on a single chip. If we make comparison between wireless technology, GiFi, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, the Gi-Fi provides better data transfer rate with minimum power consumption.
Architecture of GiFi
GiFi wireless technology incorporates one subscriber station that is made available for different access points. It supports IEEE 802.15.3C standard millimeter wave wireless networks that are used majorly for communication between computer devices. The subscriber station basically comprises of a small antenna that is mounted on the top in order to support the light of sight operations. In order to avoid any interference, it transmits multiples signals across the path of transmission, at the same time having different frequencies.
Working of GiFi
Let us use time division duplex for receiving and transmission. The data files are converted to RF 60GHz range by making use of two mixers from an IF range. The output is then stored in a power amplifier, that stores a millimeter wave antenna within. The RF incoming data is first converted to IF signal at 5GHz and then converted to a normal data range. A heterodyne construction is used for this procedure to avoid any leakage because of direct conversion. With the availability of a 7GHz spectrum, the data gets transferred in a matter of seconds.
Main features of GiFi as a Wireless technology
- Better transfer rates- The main reason for the invention of GiFi was to provide a better transfer rate in comparison to Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. As the name suggests, it offers transfer rates in Gigabits (GB) per second. It supports a 5 Gbps speed, which is approximately ten times better than the current rate of data transfer. Due to the high speed, audios, videos can be easily transferred in a matter of seconds. Due to a higher availability of 7 GHz spectrum, it results in high data rates.
- Lower power consumption- The data is transmitted at a low rate of 2mwatts while other technologies make use of 5mwatts to 10mwatts, which is comparatively very high. Even though, it allows the transfer of a large amount of information it makes use of milli watts power only.
- Secure and Cost-Efficient- The IEEE 802.15.3C offers more security, it offers both service level and link level security. Operating systems of 60GHz have been used for years by intelligence companies for security reasons and by the militants for satellite to satellite communications. The overall effects of narrow beams and O2 absorption lead in low interference and higher level of security.Coming to the cost perspective, it is based on an international and open standard. It makes use of mass-product and low cost chipsets, which drops down the rates dramatically and results in a wireless technology with high speed and low prices.
- Small sized- Another feature of GiFi is the small size. The chip measures approximately 5mm on each side, incorporates a small antenna and makes use of a 60 GHz spectrum. Therefore, GiFi offers high mobility and portability. It provides better coverage area which allows the technology to go higher.
- Quick Positioning- In comparison to the positioning of the present technologies, GiFi offers the deployment of service within a few minutes, which may take hours for other solutions.
Additional Features of GIFI wireless technology
- GiFi is highly –portable, which makes it very convenient to construct it wherever we need it.
- GiFi installs line of sight operations having a short coverage area, as it offers a versatile architecture.
- Re-use of high frequency levels is enabled which makes it easier to communicate with a wide range of customers within a specific geographic region. Hence, leaving them satisfied.
Applications Of GiFi
GiFi can be used for different scenarios. Let us take a look into the usage of this wireless technology-
- Household Appliance- With the help of GiFi consumers can easily download their favorite movies in a matter of seconds and play it on their home theatres or store it wherever desired, so as to watch it later on. It offers a higher speed of internet, content streaming and download, wireless data and real time streaming.
- Office Appliance- Due to its capability to transfer data within a few seconds, it is highly recommended to use for office purposes, as it provides information from the internet.
- Inter-vehicle communication- It functions as an inter-vehicle communication system, enabling the vehicles to stay connected on the go.
- Transfer of Video Information- With the current technologies, the transfer of videos may be a lengthy process as it may take hours, however, with the help of GiFi, videos can be transferred in a jiffy at Gbps speed. The rate of data transfer is same for both computers and mobile phones.
Top 10 Advantages of Latest, Emerging Wireless Technologies
- Strong transmission providing great throughput and distance.
- Interference is avoided by the use of wireless technologies.
- Ethernet protocol is possible to be manipulated to get more efficiency and reliability.
- Encryption technology can be used thereby providing security and integrity.
- It can reach where the cable and fiber cannot.
- Better access to get information.
- Better response.
- Good network expansion.
- Better mobility and collaboration.
- Better range.
Applications of Latest, Emerging Wireless Technologies
1. Remote Control
Today, many wireless remote controllers are gaining popularity. Some of them are:
2. Wireless Power Transmission (Witricity)
It is one of the best steps to transfer power through a wire free process. The principle behind it is the use of inductively coupled objects having same frequency at resonance. Wireless Mobile Charger is one of the popular applications coming under wireless power transmission category.
3. Item Track
Using RFID as the powerful type of wireless technology, the application based on item tracking has come to a success. Using the RFID tags, different items present in the store, animals, books etc. can be tracked quickly.
4. Voice Communication
Voice communication has gained popularity through the exposure of cellular technology. Today, through the advance of wireless technology, voice communications have achieved popularity.
In entertainment applications, wireless technology has gained more popularity. Some of the entertainment products using the wireless technology are:
6. Wireless Sensing
Wireless sensing comprises both the wireless and sensor technology. By the use of proximity and other smart sensors, the sensing takes place. Many applications like Water Leak Detection, Machinery maintenance etc. makes use of this technology.
Wireless e Book readers are today gaining popularity in the education field. It helps to overcome many disadvantages of normal books and provides better reading.